Special economic zone
A special economic zone (SEZ) is an area in which the business and trade laws are different from the rest of the country. SEZs are located within a country's national borders, and their aims include increasing trade balance, employment, increased investment, job creation and effective administration. To encourage businesses to set up in the zone, financial policies are introduced. These policies typically encompass investing, taxation, trading, quotas, customs and labour regulations. Additionally, companies may be offered tax holidays, where upon establishing themselves in a zone, they are granted a period of lower taxation.
The creation of special economic zones by the host country may be motivated by the desire to attract foreign direct investment (FDI). The benefits a company gains by being in a special economic zone may mean that it can produce and trade goods at a lower price, aimed at being globally competitive. In some countries, the zones have been criticized for being little more than labor camps, with workers denied fundamental labor rights.
The definition of an SEZ is determined individually by each country. According to the World Bank in 2008, the modern-day special economic zone typically includes a "geographically limited area, usually physically secured (fenced-in); single management or administration; eligibility for benefits based upon physical location within the zone; separate customs area (duty-free benefits) and streamlined procedures."
Modern SEZs appeared from the late-1950s in industrial countries. The first was in Shannon Airport in Clare, Ireland. Some tax-free jurisdictions such as the Cayman Islands offer technology companies a way to keep their IP offshore in a Special Economic Zone (see Cayman Enterprise City).
From the 1970s onward, zones providing labour-intensive manufacturing have been established, starting in Latin America and East Asia. The first in China following the opening of China in 1979 by Deng Xiaoping was the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone, which encouraged foreign investment and simultaneously accelerated industrialization in this region. These zones attracted investment from multinational corporations. China continues to maintain Special Economic Zones and certain open coastal areas.
Numerous African countries have set up SEZs in connection with China, including over the period 1990 to 2018 establishing SEZs in Nigeria (two), Zambia, Djibouti, Kenya, Mauritius, Mauritania, Egypt, and Algeria. Generally, the Chinese government takes a hands-off approach, leaving it to Chinese enterprises to work to establish such zones (although it does provide support in the form of grants, loans, and subsidies, including support via the China Africa Development Fund). The Forum on China-Africa Cooperation promotes these SEZs heavily.
- Free-trade zones (FTZ)
- Export processing zones (EPZ)
- Free zones/ Free economic zones (FZ/ FEZ)
- Industrial parks / industrial estates (IE)
- Free ports
- Bonded logistics parks (BLP)
- Urban enterprise zones
The World Bank created the following table to clarify distinctions between types of special economic zones:
|Type ||Objective||Size||Typical Location||Typical Activities||Markets|
|FTZ||Support trade||<50 hectares||Port of entry||Entrepôts and trade related||Domestic, re-export|
|EPZ (traditional)||Export manufacturing||<100 hectares||None||Manufacturing, processing||Mostly export|
|EPZ (single Unit/free enterprise)||Export manufacturing||No minimum||Countrywide||Manufacturing, processing||Mostly export|
|EPZ (hybrid)||Export manufacturing||<100 hectares||None||Manufacturing, processing||Export, domestic|
|Free port/SEZ||Integrated development||>1000 hectares||None||Multi-use||Internal, domestic, export|
|Urban enterprise zone||Urban revitalization||<50 hectares||Urban/rural||Multi-use||Domestic|
- List of special economic zones by country
- Exclusive economic zone
- Urban enterprise zone
- Four Asian Tigers
- Free economic zone
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- Bangladesh Export Processing Zone Authority BEPZA
- South Kazakhstan "Ontustyk" special economic zone
- Indian Special Economic Zones
- Export Processing Zones Authority Pakistan
- PEZA Philippines website
- India Special Economic zones map
- Open Joint Stock Company "Special Economic Zones" (Russia) Archived 28 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- U.S.S.R. Special Economic Zones 
- India: Citizens group demand moratorium on SEZs OneWorld South Asia