Abd ar-Rahman II
This article needs additional citations for verification. (October 2014)
|Abd al-Rahman II |
عبد الرحمن الأوسط
|4th Emir of Córdoba|
|Reign||21 May 822–852|
|Died||852 (aged 59–60)|
Abd ar-Rahman II (Arabic: عبد الرحمن الأوسط) (792–852) was the fourth Umayyad Emir of Córdoba in al-Andalus from 822 until his death. A vigorous and effective frontier warrior, he was also well known as a patron of the arts.
Abd ar-Rahman was born in Toledo, the son of Emir al-Hakam I. In his youth he took part in the so-called "massacre of the ditch", when 72 nobles and hundreds of their attendants were massacred at a banquet by order of al-Hakam.
He succeeded his father as Emir of Córdoba in 822 and for 20 years engaged in nearly continuous warfare against Alfonso II of Asturias, whose southward advance he halted. In 825, he had a new city, Murcia, built, and proceeded to settle it with Arab loyalists to ensure stability. In 835, he confronted rebellious citizens of Mérida by having a large internal fortress built. In 837, he suppressed a revolt of Christians and Jews in Toledo with similar measures. He issued a decree by which the Christians were forbidden to seek martyrdom, and he had a Christian synod held to forbid martyrdom.
In 844, Abd ar-Rahman repulsed an assault by Vikings who had disembarked in Cádiz, conquered Seville (with the exception of its citadel) and attacked Córdoba itself. Thereafter he constructed a fleet and naval arsenal at Seville to repel future raids. He may have sent al-Ghazal on a second embassy to the Vikings in Ireland after this.
Abd ar-Rahman was famous for his public building program in Córdoba. He made additions to the Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba. A vigorous and effective frontier warrior, he was also well known as a patron of the arts. He was also involved in the execution of the "Martyrs of Córdoba", and was a patron of the great composer Ziryab. He died in 852 in Córdoba
- "'Abd ar-Rahman II". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. I: A-Ak - Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2010. pp. 17. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.
- The Inheritance of Rome, Chris Wickham, Penguin Books Ltd. 2009, ISBN 978-0-670-02098-0. p. 341.
- Huici Miranda, Ambrosio (1965). "al-Ghazāl". In Lewis, B.; Pellat, Ch. & Schacht, J. (eds.). The Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume II: C–G. Leiden: E. J. Brill. p. 1038. OCLC 495469475.
- El-Hajji, Abderrahman. ""Andalusian Diplomatic Relations with the Franks during the Umayyad period"". Islamic Studies. 6: 27–28.
- Thorne, John (1984). Chambers biographical dictionary. Edinburgh: Chambers. ISBN 0-550-18022-2.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 31. .